Sunday, May 24, 2020

Media Violence Cause And Effect - 1883 Words

Media Violence Cause and Effect Violence is just one of many things that humans are exposed to throughout their lives. It is a natural part of the world we live in. Humankind has faced it in the forms of hunting, battle, and crime, but for the longest time violence was not commonplace in the home, depending on the people. That is, until the media came about. It is the drama and the action that gets the most attention and the media capitalizes on that. With the ever increasing presence of violent media, research is always being done and continues to find correlative data supported by an understanding of human learning and behavior processes, that links on-screen violence to numerous long-term effects on human psychology. The most discussed effects are those on violent behavior, thoughts, and feelings, desensitization, and relations to fear. In children, media violence can lead to long-term aggression, but their behavioral development is largely directed by their environment and learning process. To understand how the media effects a child’s behavior, an understanding of this development is key. â€Å"Monkey see, monkey do† is a simplified term describing a more complex process. By experiencing behaviors vicariously, certain emotional reactions become associated with given stimuli. Imitating these reactions repeatedly, encodes the respective behavioral scripts and normative beliefs (Bushman, Huesmann). Violence promotes aggression, and kindness promotes more kindness. Peers andShow MoreRelatedCause and Effects of Media Violence779 Words   |  3 Pagesbecause of the media. Some people say it is entirely because of television. Others say it is because of the lack of responsibility of people. When the two young gunmen, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, killed 13 students and a teacher, and injured 21 before kil ling themselves in 1999, an ongoing, blazing debate about the medias influence was ignited. The 1999 Columbine High School massacre and extensive coverage of the issue by the media appeared to side with those who think that violence depicted graphicallyRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On People1388 Words   |  6 PagesThe Effect of Media Violence on People Media violence impacts the physical aggression of human beings. It is one of the many potential factors that influence the risk for violence and aggression. Research has proven that aggression in children will cause the likelihood of aggression in their adulthood. Theories have evolved that the violence present in the media most likely teaches the viewer to be more violent. It is a risky behavior that is established from the childhood. Furthermore, media violenceRead MoreMedia Violence And Its Effects1057 Words   |  5 Pages Media violence exposure has been investigated as a risk factor for aggression behavior for years. The impact of exposure to violence in the media the long term development and short term development of aggressive behavior has been documented. Aggression is caused by several factors, of which media violence is one. Research investigating the effects of media violence in conjunction with other predictors of aggression such as; environmental factors and dysfunction within the family household,Read MoreMedia s Influence On The Youth Of America1454 Words   |  6 PagesMedia in the United States has a prominent role on the youth of America. A majority of children and young adults have access to internet, television, radio, newspapers, and video games practically any time they want. The violence in media, along with the availability of media are increasing, however the most predominant form of media for children is video games. Because of this, many are concerned with the effects on t he youth. The violence in video games is a cause for aggressive emotions, thoughtsRead Moreâ€Å"There is increasing evidence that early exposure to media violence is a contributing factor to the1000 Words   |  4 Pagesexposure to media violence is a contributing factor to the development of aggression† (Huesmann, Moise-Titus, Podolski, Eron, 2003). Huesmann and Kirwil (2007, p. 545), argue that an individual’s aggression and violent behaviour are not only caused by emotional, mental and physical circumstances but also the environment plays an equally vital role. They further on state that hastening violent behaviour in the short-term sense is due to disclosure to violence, which can be either through media, computerRead MoreMedia Violence and Its Effect on Children Essay1112 Words   |  5 Pagessociety that violence in the country is on the rise. It is easy to see why this is a strong argument among the American people, especially because of the rising populari ty of violent video games and television programs. However, as these violent video games and television shows are creating their own place in our society, the reports of violence among children are escalating. This correlation has been studied extensively in the scientific community in an attempt to discover whether media violence does negativelyRead MoreMass Media and Violence Essay891 Words   |  4 PagesMass Media and Violence Is it hard to believe that just forty years ago only a few privileged American families had televisions in their home? In recent years, it is estimated that a whopping ninety-eight percent of Americans have one or more television sets in their home. Motion pictures, televisions, video games, and the internet are just some forms of mass media that have emerged since the last century. With the rise of mass media, the increase of violent behavior has increased as well. MassRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Families809 Words   |  4 PagesJai Patel Mrs. Caldwell CP English 9 March 2017 How Media Violence is Affecting Families Often times parents overlook the fact of watching television as a subtle act without any true consequences. Children watch â€Å"TV†. However watching media over time takes a toll on the young mind. Many young children view television and other forms of media on a daily basis. With how society defines entertainment nowadays, there is bound to be negative and violent content on every child’s new smart â€Å"TV†. InRead MoreThe Effects Of Violence On Young Children981 Words   |  4 Pagesthroughout America spend countless hours on the media, such as watching television, playing video games, or listening to music. Most media in the world today contains immeasurable images of violence, and average total media use of children throughout the United States is nearly 8 hours per day (Bushman Anderson, 2001). This means that through this constant access to the media, young children are exposing themselves to countless images of graphic violence. This is a serious is sue, as young childrenRead MoreThe Criminal Justice System: Media Violence and Social Justice724 Words   |  3 Pagesadults who are exposed to the media are aggressive and violent. According to such articles, violent content provokes aggressive behavior and violence. Ferguson illustrates that watching satanic content, like in Harry Potter, or teaching of witchcraft can lead to Satanism or mental illness. According to Ferguson (2008), books, rock, jazz, television and watching movies in the media, leads to a wave of moral degradation, rebelliousness and violence. They also clam that new media like internet and video games

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Bamboo - 4569 Words

------------------------------------------------- What is Bamboo? Bamboo is actually and evergreen plant, and a member of the true grass family Phocaea. It is the fastest growing woody perennial on the planet, and some of the giant species can grow up to four feet per day! It is found on nearly every continent in the world, and has a wide range of useful applications. Bamboo products are used extensively in the modern world, and its usage has been growing rapidly in recent years. It is an easily renewable resource and its cultivation is beneficial to the environment. A bamboo grove creates 5 times more bio-material than a typical pine forest, making it beneficial to the environment. Bamboo is truly an amazing plant, and provides great†¦show more content†¦Thick shape of the clumping rhizome while the later describes the long, slender shape of a running rhizome. Both pairs of terms describe some of the features of the two rhizome types but I prefer to use the words clamper and runner. A running bamboo has the capability of spreading rapidly . It can also get nourishment from the ground at some distance from its culms. Under favourable growing conditions the runner planted as an ornamental can become a problem, growing into a lawn. a flower bed or a neighbors yard. The c1umpers are more well behaved as they can only spread slowly from the edge of the clump. In most cases the clump diameter will be no greater than about 10 or 15 ft. after many years. In most genera of bamboos all of the species are either clumpers or runners. Most clumpers are tropical or subtropical plants that are damaged by temperatures below about 15 ° F, while most runners can withstand colder temperatures. There are exceptions - the two most hardy species grown in the U.S. Thamnocalamlls spathaceolls (Fran.) Soder. and Sinarundinaria nitida (Mitf.) Nakai are clumping bamboos The Branches Almost all bamboos have one or more branches that grow from the culm nodes. In many species the lower nodes of large culms remain branchless. The number of branches , their relative size and their arangement on the culm node is an important characteristic for the identification of the genus and sometimes of the species. Bamboo Branches The LeavesShow MoreRelatedThe Vital Roles of Bamboo1196 Words   |  5 PagesBamboos are a fascinating group of organisms that play a vital role in the economy and life style of many Asian, African and American countries (Farrelly, 1984; McClure, 1956, 1966). Traditionally Bamboo has been referred to a group of woody, evergreen perennial, arborescent grasses, ranging from timber producing species of trees to shrubs or ground cover plants. Bamboo has a rich history, and a promising future as part of the solution to 21st-century challenges. The history of bamboo’s utilizationRead MoreSwot Analysis Of Pt Bamboo Pure1317 Words   |  6 PagesSibang Kaja, Banjar Saren Abiansemal, Badung Bali 80352, Indonesia Architects: PT Bamboo Pure Design team: John Hardy (owner and inspirator); Aldo Landwehr (creative director), Cheong Yew Kuan, Effan Adhiwira, Miya Buxton, Hanno Burtscher, Phillip Beck, Stephanie Gunawan, Erin Johnson, Kendra Spanton, Yulianto Maliang, I Nyoman Kerta, I Gusti Ngurah Putra Wiarsa, Heru Wijayanto (designers), Joerg Stamm (bamboo consultant) Structural engineering: Faculty of Civil Engineering, Gadjah Mada UniversityRead MoreDried Bamboo Leaves as an Alternative Source of Paper2723 Words   |  11 PagesDRIED BAMBOO LEAVES (Poaceae) AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF PAPER Introduction Bamboo plants are identified as species of subfamily Bambusoideae, family Gramineae. They are distributed in many parts of the world. There are more than 1200 species of 50 genera of bamboo. There is approximate 22 million ha bamboo forest area worldwide that can be divided into three big divisions e.g. Asia and Pacific, America and Africa. China, India, Southeastern Asian nations, some of nations of AfricaRead MoreBamboo As A Low Cost, Eco Friendly Manner2571 Words   |  11 PagesBAMBOO IN ARCHITECTURE ABSTRACT Bamboo has found use in extensive fields ranging from medicine to cooking to furniture making and most importantly in construction. The advantage of using bamboo is the easy availability of the material especially in India. The use of bamboo as a structural construction material is also gaining popularity primarily because it is a rapidly growing material which makes it sustainable. It has many positive engineering attributes such as its high strength and durabilityRead MoreThe Myth Behind the Singing and Chirping of Birds551 Words   |  2 Pagesalways been curious what is at the land of the Pandas. He decided the rule of the birds was dumb and decided to go and check out the Panda’s place. So Duck flew a long way from his home until he finally reached a large area filled with bamboo. The large pointed bamboo made Duck uncertain for a little while, but then he decided he wasnt about to chicken out and flew right in. Right on time, Duck noticed some Panda maidens and sneakily flew over them without being seen. Out of the corner of his eyeRead MoreWhy Are The Giant Pandas Become Endangered?1442 Words   |  6 Pagesbut there are other reasons surfacing as scientists studied the specie over the years. They are classified into the bear family, but the diet between a panda and a grizzly bear couldn’t be more different. A panda’s main diet consists almost entirely bamboo, while the other bears feast on meat. However, pandas actually used to be carnivorous just like the rest of the bear family, the reason that they switched to an all vegetarian diet is because sometime between 7 to 2 million years ago, they lost theRead MoreThe Panda Bear Or Giant Panda1429 Words   |  6 PagesThe panda bear or giant panda is located in the south central area of China. It is recognized for its appearance. It belongs to the Carnivore group even though it eats 99% bamboo. Pandas found in the wild will eat other grasses, wild tubers, or meat in the form of birds , rodents, or carrion. Pandas in captivity receive honey, eggs, fish, yams, shrub leaves, oranges, bananas, or other specially prepared foods. Pandas live in mountain ranges because deforestation has driven them from lowland areasRead MorePanda Bear Or Giant Panda1501 Words   |  7 PagesPandas The panda bear or giant panda is located in the south central area of China. It is recognized for its appearance. It belongs to the Carnivore group even though it eats 99% bamboo. Pandas found in the wild will eat other grasses, wild tubers, or meat in the form of birds, rodents, or carrion. Pandas in captivity receive honey, eggs, fish, yams, shrub leaves, oranges, bananas, or other specially prepared foods. Pandas live in mountain ranges because deforestation has driven them from lowlandRead MoreDeconstructing of Forest and Woodland990 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"forest† as â€Å"a group of living trees or bamboos and the land on which the group of trees or bamboos is growing. The exception is land with trees that are managed for agriculture, residence, or similar purposes† (Ota 2002). Japan classifies forests in three classes; â€Å"forests with standing trees†: forest that has a canopy cover of 30 percent or higher; â€Å"bamboo forests†: forest that d oes not fall under â€Å"forest with standing tree† and is dominated by bamboo (excluding bamboo grass); and â€Å"forests without standingRead MorePanda Bears Vs. Environment1279 Words   |  6 Pagespandas reside. They are habituated in bamboo forests, which are not only the panda s’ home, but also their main source of food. A panda s diet consists of ninety percent bamboo and ten percent of mushrooms, insects, fish, plants and other small rodents. These bamboo forests are being taken from them, because the human population is constantly expanding and using their bamboo forests as land for growing crops or to build roads. Combined with the natural dying on bamboo and logging, these defenseless panda

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Fall Of The House Of Usher - 2041 Words

Nathaniel Hawthorne was one of America’s first romantic writers and his writings are still quite popular today. One of Hawthorne’s most popular short stories include the writing of â€Å"Young Goodman Brown.† What makes Hawthorne so progressive in today’s literary world is the fact that he makes a smooth transition from symbolism to allegory in his writings. Edgar Allan Poe uses a more gothic style of writing that gives his science fiction literature unique character. One of Poe’s more popular stories is â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher† in which he uses deep symbolism and imagery to tell the story. Although both short stories portray critical use of allegory and symbolism, it is based upon opinion as to which story is the more superior. â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† is more superior because of its detailed characters, better use of literally techniques and deeper themes. â€Å"Young Goodman Brown† is a short story about a man by the name of Goodman Brown who constantly questions his religious faith. The story begins as Goodman Brown goes on a journey into the dark woods leaving behind Faith, his wife. As he travels into the woods, he meets with someone there, who the reader later comes to find out is the Devil. Throughout Brown’s journey, he starts to notice certain townspeople of his village walking through the woods, speaking with the Devil. Brown is confused as to why these so-called good Christian people are involved with the Devil late at night. The story’s climactic pointShow MoreRelatedThe Fall Of The House Of Usher1243 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"The Fall Of The House Of Usher:† The Mysterious Family In the story â€Å" The Fall of the House of Usher† by Edgar Allan Poe, has an American romanticism with its characters. Edgar Allan Poe is considered a Dark Romanticism because of the way he writes his poems and short stories centered around the concept of evil human nature, darkness, and death. Roderick and Madeline Usher were said to be related during the middle of the story; they were twins. It explained how they were sick, Roderick had a mentalRead MoreThe Fall of the House of Usher700 Words   |  3 Pages â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher† is a classic horror story written by Edgar Allen Poe. Edgar wrote descriptively through the physical setting, the first person point of view, and the uniquely dynamic characters. These elements worked together to create suspense and kept the readers curious. The first fiction of element begins in the very first paragraph. The unknown narrator described the day as a â€Å"dull, dark, and soundless day in the autumn of the year†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . The setting while the narrator wasRead MoreThe Fall of the House of Usher1239 Words   |  5 PagesA young man ran away from a heap of ruins. He had witnessed the death of his best friend and his home but he ran away as it happened. At the moment, all was silent and not even a squeak could be heard. But if a house collapsed in the middle of a forest, and no one was around to hear it, did it make a sound? With such wonders, death, and darkness also come the work of Edgar Allan Poe. Edgar Allan Poe is known as a literature legend. He wrote many complicated horror and detective fiction stories, whichRead MoreThe Fall Of The House Of Usher856 Words   |  4 PagesThe Fall of the House of Usher and House Taken Over In Edgar Allan Poe’s â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher† and Julio Cortazar’ â€Å"House Taken Over† the short stories represent the genre of Gothic Literature. Gothic Literature is a genre that combines fiction, horror, death, and romance. Some of these traits are seen in both of these stories through characters and settings. However, there are other traits that set them apart. To begin with, one of the major themes in both of these stories is fear. InRead MoreThe Fall Of The House Of Usher1285 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher† has been noted as one of Edgar Allan Poe’s most famous short stories. The story begins when the narrator arrives at the house of his friend, Roderick Usher. Roderick is ill and has been living his life deeply reclusive. His sister Madeline suffers from a sensory disorder and is considered to be dead. The narrator attempts to comfort Roderick and alleviate his melancholy by reading a story that appears to foreshadow later events. In this story, Poe provides his audienceRead MoreThe Fall Of The House Of Usher1612 Words   |  7 PagesThe second message of Poe s The Fall of the House of Usher is that moral disintegration should necessarily lead to destruction as a sort of mundane punishment. Usher blames himself for burying his sister before death so he expects punishment. One conclusion to be d rawn from the final scene is that Roderick dies of fear. Madeline appears in her coffin and rushes upon him and he falls to the floor a corpse. Symbolically Madeline is just a physical embodiment of Roderick’s fears and punishment.Read MoreThe Fall Of The House Of Usher1727 Words   |  7 PagesFate’s Influence in â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher† Depressing imagery, confrontation of death, and the intense madness humans are capable of are all themes integrated into Edgar Allan Poe’s stories. The psychology of the human psyche prompted him to create the complex tales that made him famous. Poe’s story of obsession and the power of suggestion is beautifully written through the narrator’s tale. In â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher†, the characters portray the self-manifesting development of one’sRead MoreThe Fall Of The House Of Usher1133 Words   |  5 Pagesthe story â€Å" The Fall of the House of Usher† by Edgar Allan Poe, has american romanticism with the characters. Edgar Allan Poe is considered a Dark Romanticism because of his poems and short stories centered around the ideas of evil human nature, darkness, and death. Roderick Usher and Madeline were that kind of person in this story; they were twins. There were sick; Roderick had mental disorder and physically and Madeline wa s physically sick. As the narrator enters the desolate house, he finds bothRead MoreThe Fall Of The House Of Usher888 Words   |  4 Pages Edgar Allen Poe’s short story The Fall of the House of Usher was very captivating. Once I began reading the story I couldn’t put the book down till I was done. I believe the protagonist in the story was Roderick Usher. I always assumed a protagonist to be heroic in some way. Roderick Usher’s character, however, was not heroic. Usher was not only a hypochondriac, but he was a mentally and physically sick man. I have no doubt that a lot of his mental and physical maladies sprouted from yearsRead MoreThe Fall Of The House Of Usher1651 Words   |  7 PagesRomanticism/Transcendentalism Essay Edgar Allen Poe’s â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher,† Nathaniel Hawthorne’s â€Å"The Minister’s Black Veil,† and William Cullen Bryant’s â€Å"Thanatopsis† illustrate several Romantic and Transcendentalist (and anti-Transcendentalist) traits. All of these authors are regarded as very important and influential Romantic writers. Their works are renowned all across the entire world. â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher† is a Gothic short story written by Edgar Allen Poe, which focuses

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Relationship between International and National Law

Question: Discuss about the Report on Relationship between International and National Law? Answer: Introduction The present research paper based on the critically exploring all the fact and findings of international law and national law. The selected country region in the county is United Kingdom. England, Scotland and Wales are the three countries, which represent United Kingdom. The law of United Kingdom is critically compared with the law of the European Union. In the study, the law of United Kingdom comprises the domestic law and on the other hand, the law of European Union comprises of the international law[1]. All the major Acts and laws of the European Union are analyzed with the Acts and laws of the United Kingdom. Generally, the United Kingdom legislation does not maintain any written law and legislations. United Kingdom Legislation does not maintain proper-coded constitutions. On the other hand, the European Union Law maintains a proper-coded constitution. This is one of the most important points in the present study. There are certain advantages and disadvantages of maintaining coded and de coded legislation procedure. This part of the study will summarize the entire structure of the research paper. There are several parts in this particular investigation procedure. The introductory part of the study will highlight the two legal systems, which are highlighted in the study. The second part of the research paper will highlight the background of the investigation procedure. The background of the investigation procedure will analyze what are the key areas and points, which are heighted in the study. The most important point is the rationale of the study, which concludes different issues that can be derived from the topic. The research questions of the study, which are developed by the investigator, will analyze all the key points and areas of the two legal systems. This part of the study will analyze the key relationship point of the two-selected legal system. The following part of the study will highlight different kinds of research methodologies which investigator will use in order to outline the ent ire investigation procedure [2]. The significant part of the entire research methodology is the application of the data analysis procedure. The researcher in the entire investigation procedure has decided maintain the cost factor in the entire investigation procedure. The concluding part of the entire investigation procedure will summarize the entire investigation procedure. Background of the Study The study covers all the Acts and legislations of international law and domestic law. At the initial stage international law and domestic law differs in magnitudes. Domestic law of every country governs the behaviors and actions of different individuals within the country. On the other hand, international law governs the behavior and actions of bodies of government, which includes state or a country. Generally, there are three branches of every government. Depending upon the requirements of the country the three branches of the government are divided into executive branch, judicial branch and legislative branch. The concept of enforcement plays an important and vital role in both international law and domestic law. International law lacks a common executive. On the other hand, majority of the domestic law can be executed. The study will analyze critically all the major factors which differentiate between international law and domestic law. In the study, the constituency of the United Kingdom and the constituency of the European Union are highlighted. One of the major advantages of the United Kingdom law is the legislation are not coded. With indicates that the government can maintain flexibility in the rules and regulations. If required it can be amended within a specific period. The voting system and the human rights are the two crucial factors, which determine the legal contribution. European Union follows a coded legislation, which indicates less flexibility. Rationale of the Study This part of the study will cover three important points. The three points of the study are highlighted in the following part of the study:- What is the issue? Why is the issue? What is the issue now? The study will focus on the three important factors, which will contribute the rationale of the study. The study covers all the critical areas of the international law compared with the domestic law. It will critically analyze all the important areas of the legal structure of the United Kingdom with the Legal structure of the European Union. In the era of globalization, the role of the legal system plays a vital role [3]. For example if a company in Australia wants to develop its legal structure in the United Kingdom, it is one of the very difficult part to follow the a proper legal system. In this particular case, the concept of the legal system plays a vital role. The European Legal structure develops a versatile legal system, which offers majority of the companies to follow a proper structure off a legal system. This particular option is not applicable in the legal system of the United Kingdom. There are negligible issues, which are highlighted in the entire investigation procedure of the selected topic [4]. Both the legal structure of the United Kingdom and European are developed based on the requirements of the county. Sometimes it becomes one of the most different points to compare and to conclude relationship of the national legal system with international legal system. Both the legal system has specific features. The notion of feature includes different concepts of the two legal systems, which includes different applications based on the requirements. In order to compare and contrast a national legal system with international legal system, the Legal system of the United Kingdom is highlighted with the legal system of the European Union. Both the selected legal structure maintains a unique relationship. The relationship of the legal structure of the United Kingdom is almost same with the European Union. All the important factors such as different of legislations and different kinds of Acts are highlighted in the study. The national law and the legal system of any country are developed by keeping in mind the requirements of the country and on the other hand, the international legal system is devel oped by analyzing all the factors of the national legal of different country. The ultimate relationship in this context can be concluded with this particular point is all the legal system of any country is developed, keeping in mind the different needs and requirements of the country and by ensuring a proper reservation of the human rights in the country. Research Questions The investigator keeping in mind the requirements of the research work develops research questions. Initially the researcher has developed five questions based on the national and international law. Q1) what are the different characteristics of the legal system of the United Kingdom which will conclude about the relationship with internal legal system Q2) how the legal system of the United Kingdom differs from the legal system of England, Wales and Scotland Q3) what are the key points, which can be concluded, after relating the legal system of the United Kingdom with European Union Q4) what are the major drawbacks and loopholes of the legal system in the United Kingdom Q5) what are the major drawbacks and loopholes of the legal system of the European Union Research Methodology The outline of the research process is known as the concept of the Research methodologies. The present study mainly deals in the process of analyzing all the critical factors of the national law and international law of United Kingdom [5]. Majority of the research work is conducted with the help of the secondary data analysis. The notion of the secondary research is done with the help of the data, which are already being published. For example, different kinds of legal and official websites, different kinds published newspapers, journals and articles are the key of data. The investigator in order to conduct a proper investigation procedure based on analyzing different points on local and national legal system also organized primary data analysis. The entire data analysis techniques were divided into primary data analysis procedure and secondary data analysis procedure [6]. The application of the qualitative and the application of the quantitative are the two important parts in the en tire data analysis techniques. The primary data analysis procedure is a much time consuming process and requires a lot of cost in the process of organizing. Resources are limited; the job of the investigator is to complete the research work with the limited resources. On the other hand, to complete the investigation process on time is another challenging job for the analyst in the operations of the investigation process. Keeping in mind the requirements of the investigation procedure the researcher has decided to organize only secondary data analysis process. With the help of the secondary data analysis, the investigator has organized the entire investigation procedure based on national and international legal structure of the United Kingdom. The other three other component in the research outline is research philosophy, research approach and research design [7]. There are several research approaches, research designs and research philosophies in the investigation procedure. The job of the researcher is to analyze all the factors of the investigation procedure based on the requirements of the research work. Post positivism is one of the most significant research approaches. The investigator in the process of organizing the research work on national law and international law the researcher has decided to use the concept of post positivism philosophies. With the application of the post positivism, research philosophy the investigator in the operations of the investigation procedure will be able to support the research work with secondary data, real facts and findings. Research approach is another mode of research methodology, which ensures the investigator, to support the investigation procedure by analyzing different kinds of theories and models. Sometimes it becomes very much different for the investigator to decide whether to choose inductive mode of investigation procedure or weather to use deductive mode of investigation procedure. Both the inductive method and the deductive method have different utility in the investigation procedure [8]. In the present research paper on comparisons between international law and national law, the investigator has decided to use the concept of inductive method. As compared with deductive method of research approach, the investigator has decided use the concept of the inductive method of research approach. The main difference between the applications of the inductive method of research philosophy with the deductive method of research philosophy is the application of different theories [9]. The application of t he inductive method of research philosophy includes the concept of the concerned with development of new theories emerging from different analysis of different scientific data. Deductive method of research approach mainly covers all the areas of testing theories. Generally, the application of the inductive method of research approach is more expensive as compared with the deductive method of research approach. Cost is one of the most crucial parts in the entire investigation procedure as resources of the organizations are limited. Application of existing theories and development of new theories is the ultimate objective in the process of inductive method of research approach [10]. The concept of research design refers to the overall research strategies ensuring an effective research work. This part of the research methodology concludes the overall design for data collection method and techniques. There are different kinds research designs. Sometime it becomes very much difficult for the investigator to choose the accurate research designs for the selected research problems, Challenges and problems are always present in different kinds of investigation procedure. The researcher in the study has done a lot of investigation procedure in order to conclude about the best research designs. The concept of research design is known as the blue print of the research proceedings to conduct a proper research work. Plan of executing different collected research data can be done with the application of the research design. The overall plans and proceedings for answering the answering the research questions or testing the research hypothesis is the ultimate objective of the research designs. In the present research paper, the investigator has decided to use the concept of the descriptive research designs. Depending upon the nature of the research work on national and international law the investigator has decided to use the concept of descriptive research design. Descriptive research design brings more sustainability in the entire investigation procedure. Applying descriptive method of research designs will ensure the investigator to carry on an in dept analysis on national law of United Kingdom and international law of European Union. The investigator in the operations of research used the overall research methodology to develop this particular research paper based on the comparisons of the national law and international law. The investigation in the study has critically analyzed all the facts and findings based on the national law of England, Wales and Scotland with international law of European Union. As mentioned cost is one of the most crucial part in the entire investigation procedure a resources of the organizations are limited. The investigator in the present research work has ensured in the optimum utilization of resources. In the investigation procedure, the researcher has skipped the primary source of data collection [11]. The qualitative source and the quantitative source of data collection are quite expensive as compared with the secondary data collection. In order to make the entire investigation procedure in a cost effective manner the investigator has decided to support the study on national and int ernational law on secondary method of data collection. In the outline of the investigation procedure, the investigator has used all the application of the research methodology in an accurate manner. The investigator has done a remarkable job for deciding the entire outline of the investigation procedure. Data Sampling Data sampling analyses a significant portion of the analysis procedure. In order to make the entire investigation cost efficient the investigator has decided to use the application of the secondary method of data collection. The secondary mode of data collection techniques includes different kinds of research analysis of different journals, articles and books. One of the most important part in the entire data analysis procedure is the investigator has used different official websites of legislative system of the government of the United Kingdom and with the European Union. The investigator in the entire investigation procedure has done a remarkable job in order to make the entire investigation procedure cost effective and cost efficient [12]. Nearly the analyst concluded about different books and different journals to conclude the entire investigation procedure with effective information. Literature Review The consolidation process of the legal system was started with the advent of the European Union. National law and international law are the two important factors, which are the major two constituents of the present study. Legislation of the United Kingdom and the European Union are the two important bodies, which are highlighted in the study. With reference to this context, European law divided different legislation [13]. One is the primary legislation and on the other hand, secondary legislation. Primary legislation is the basic ground of all European Law action. The secondary legislation includes three important factor of the European Union Law. Regulations, directives and decisions are the three important principles and objectives, which are set out in the rules and regulations of the legislations. The United Kingdom legislation system has three bodies. The notion of the English law is applicable in England and Wales. On the other hand, the legal system of Northern Ireland is based on common law principle[14]. However, the legal system of Scotland is based on civil law principles. The legal system United Kingdom is diversified. England and Wales diverge in more detail rules and regulations of the English law and on the other hand, common law and civil law are the two important points in Scotland and Northern Ireland. The United Kingdom does not have a single legal system since developed by the political Union of previously independent country [15]. Common law, English Law and civil law are the three important factors in the entire legal structure of the United Kingdom. Concept of National Law The domestic legal system of any country comprises the concept of the national law. United Kingdom comprises both national law and international legal system [16]. The objective of the study is to analysis all the factors of the national legal system of the country, which includes different Acts, rules and legislation. The application and the utility of the national legal system are restricted within the national boundary[17]. The application and the utility of the national legal structure is not applied beyond the national boundary of the country. Concept of International Law The concept and the application of the international law are applied globally. The application of the international legal system can be applied globally or nationally. The most significant part of the study is the contribution of the international legal system based on the formulation of the national legal system [18]. Different legal system of different country contributes a significant portion in the process of development of a proper international legal structure. In order to diversify this particular concept the legal system of the United Kind and the legal system of the European are highlighted. Relation between National Law and International Law This part of the study will analyze all the important factors, which are related with the concept of the international law and domestic law. The notion of cooperation and symbiosis are the two important elements, which distinguish the concept between the international law and local law. International law recognizes doctrines and concept created by different national level legislations. The concept monism and dualism are the two important accept which needs to justified in order supporting the concept of national law and international law . The notion of dualism is the international and domestic legal order, which exits in two separate legal orders. Subject, sources and content are the three important factors, which constitutes the three important factors in the dualism. National law has more priority over international law. Monism is the concept of national law has one unitary and coherent system. International law is at the top of the pyramid of the Monism structure. Monism legal structure comprises of different kinds of conflicts in both national law and in international law. The concepts of transportation of international law into domestic law are not required. Under the notion of the Dualism Doctrine, there is a clear distinction between the international law and state level law [19]. Dualism and monism are the two important factors, which comprises international law and domestic law. The doctrine is established by giving top priority to the local level law. Monism Dualism Monism is the concept of the international legal system above domestic legal system, which mainly controls the domestic legal system of a country. Dualism is the concept of the national state interest, which can overrule international legal system. Monism integrates different international values which can override the international legal system of the country Dualism does not integrate different international values, which can override the international legal system of the country. Weather an international legal system or an national legal system, the ultimate objective of any legal system is to protect all the rights and interest of every individuals The concept is same in case of Dualism. The main objective of any legal structure weather national legal structure and international legal structure, the objective of the legal structure is to protect the rights and interest of each individual. The national legal system comprises of different states International legal system constitutes first internal law and then state level law. English Law Judges Session in courts makes the essence of English legal system of England and Wales. The statutory framework of the English law is developed by the first schedule of the Interpretation Act of 1978, which defines certain objectives of the British Islands. British Island comprises of two unions. England and United Kingdom are the two unions, which comprises of the British Union [20]. The statutes of the United Kingdom comprise Act of Old Irish Parliament, Act of Scottish Parliament and Act of United Kingdom Parliament is statute law structure, which comprise the legal system of the United Kingdom and most importantly comprises of the English Law. The idea of the statutory instrument is the principal form, in which the legislation of the English law delegated in Great Britain. There are three levels of delegation in the English law. Executive branch, judicial branch and Legislative branch are the three important branches of delegation in the United Kingdom. The statutory instruments governed the Statutory Instrument Act of the year 1946. All the three-delegated bodies are organized by the statutory rules and regulations. There are certain rules and regulations, which is followed in order to develop a proper Act. Common Law Common law is known as the notion of the case law [21]. A common law is a legal system, which comprises legal the structure of the Scotland. Statutory law and regulatory law are the two important legislative bodies, which comprises the notion of the Scottish legal system. Civil Law Civil law is one of the most important parts in the entire European legislation. The notion of the civil law is a group a legal ideas and system which is derived ultimately from the court of Justice. The Northern Ireland structures entirely developed with civil law as compared with the other two legislation of the country [22]. There are certain formulations of the civil law. Abstraction is the ultimate formulation of the civil law. European Union Doctrine The objective of the study is to analyze all the critical factors of the two legal systems. There are certain factors, which needs to be analyzed critically. The legal structure of the United Kingdom is the notion of the national law and on the other hand, the notion of the European Union is the notion of the international law. This part of the study will cover the doctrine of the European Union. The concept of the EU law is first implemented in the national Judges. The European Union treaties are based on rule of law. This point concludes that every action taken by European Union is formed on a treaty that needs to be approved by the European Union, which indicates different European countries [23]. There are different applications of the EU law. European Union comprises of both National law and international law. One of the most important application of the European law is it confers right and obligations on different authorities on each members of the countries as well as different in different individuals [24]. The authorities in each members of the country are responsible for implementation process of the European Union Legislation in national law. Enforcement of law is equally important as compared with development of the legal procedure. Each members of the country are equally important and responsible for the implementation process of the European Union legislation in the national law and the most significant point is to enforce the law properly and must guarantee for the protection of the of the rights of the citizen under different circumstances. There are different forms of European legislation. European Union is associated with the decision making process of the European Union. Relationship between the UK Legal Structure and with the European Union Important points of the European Union There are 27 countries, which represents the entire European Union. The rules of the European Union is developed keeping in mind the requirement of the countries. There are several points, which determine the advantages of the European Union. Some of the key points are discussed in the study. The rules and regulations of the European Union represent the international part of the comparison study. The following points will help the readers to conclude about the different advantages of the European Union. Low prices of goods The members of the European Union exits in a single market were all the price of the goods and services are low [25]. The notion of the custom tax is not applied in this particular segment. The concept of the custom tax is the tax, which are paid when the goods are transferred from one country to another. With the exclusion of the custom tax members of the European Union is benefited by getting the goods and services in a lower cost. Citizens are freely to move from one country to another in Europe The members of the European Union are allowed to move from one European country to another European country [26]. This is one of the most important advantages because the citizens of the European Union are not required visa for travelling one country to another within Europe. Workers in the European Union are more protected The workers in the European Union are more protected as compared with the workers of the other country. The rules and regulations of the European Union are developed in such a manner by keeping in mind the requirements of the workers and by protecting the legal rights of the workers [27]. The key factors, which are emphasized towards the development of the workers rights, are rules and regulations, workplace timings, working hours, holiday structures and breaks. Overcrowding All the rules and regulations of the European Union are overcrowded. All the citizens are freely to move from one European country to another European country [28]. It this is one of the major advantages and on the other hand, some added this is also a major disadvantage. Single currency There are 27 members in the entire European Union nation. Every nation has own national currency and on the other hand, there is a common European Currency named as Euro. By the application of the European currency, it brings confusion weather to use Euro or weather to use national level currency. Not all policies of the Legal structure are efficient The European Union comprises of different kinds of legislative structure. The entire legislative structure and the legal body of the European Union are equally efficient. All the legal structure of the European Union is developed by keeping in mind the requirement of single country in entire Europe. However, some of the policies of the European Union are efficient and on the other hand, some of the policies of the European Union are not equally efficient [29]. For example in recent time, there were different kinds of issues, which were faced by the common agricultural policy, which resulted in the oversupply, and higher prices of goods [30]. Important points of United Kingdom law The entire United Kingdom rules and regulations maintain a flexible legal structure in the entire United Kingdom. The most important is the UK government maintains a proper decoded law structure. This allows the government to amend the legal structure based on the requirements after a specific period. One of the major disadvantages of the United Kingdom law is the government follows a decoded law structure, which has no written documentation. Research ethics In this research, the researcher has assessed various data on the international and national law by critically. This would make a rationale in distinguishing ideas that involve application of ethical principles of the research. It also includes scientific research on the code of referral of national laws imposed [31]. Thus, there may be various aspects related to human experimentation, academic scandal, scientific misconduct and fabrication of data [32]. International law has been represented by developing the research through scientific community that has transmitted the values ethically [33]. It is identified that ethical issues would be taken into consideration if responsibilities were made through securing actual permission and interests of the participants. Hence, this would be carried through the ideas that make the research effective on motivation and development process. The investigator in the study needs to organize the entire research process by maintaining the ethics in a proper manner. Research ethics is a different approach that is performed in educational communities. Individuals and workers identify these ethics in organizing the aspects that make it influential on the laws performed. There are key issues that are formed on the organizational territory. This includes honesty and integrity that reviews the author and experts of editorial boards. The review process may also contribute to the qualities that stand in the organizational area [34]. If the ethical standards are presented on the unidentified activities, authorship may claim right. To see the perspective of ethics on international and national laws, there are recommendations that will help to make the economy better [35]. Discussion on intellectual property Research ethics regulates on the federal bodies that make it a judgmental among the individuals. The code of framework makes people comfortable in some ways, but the barriers do not form a working environment. It is specifically said that major faculty would discuss the credit but the idea of the research would not attract target audiences [36]. This code has contributed substantially through authorship credit that has a research perspective on holding an introductory statement. Thus, this contributes on the design procedures, interpretation of laws and making the research hypothetical. Conscious of multiple roles The ethical perspectives on international laws have imposed relationships that will exploit others. This would be reasonably good if multiple relationships are created through participants and clients [37]. An interesting area where these types of laws permit would make differential analysis through Data Protection Act and implement rules and regulations in the research area [38]. Follow informed and consent rules Here, individuals and other participants that volunteer the work on risking the benefits relevantly would assist the idea [39]. This will persist by making federal laws reasonable in understanding the ideas that includes: The purpose of the research is expected to make a code of framework through ethical ideas and concepts. Incentives for major participants have a prospect of research benefits. The limit of confidentiality refers to data coding, sharing and archiving. Participants have interacted through major questionnaires, which have to be solved at times. Confidentiality and privacy This will balance on the research issues if participants do not seek enough research instinct. If the information is organized through a periodic behavior, then there will be a lack of confidentiality. On the other side, privacy should also be maintained as well. Proposed provisional research timetable and chapter headings Time Schedule of the investigation procedure Main activities 1st+ 2ndweek 2nd +3rdweek 3rd+ 4thweek 4th+5thweek 6th + 7thweek 7th+ 8thweek Selection of the Research topic Literature review and different theories Investigation procedure of the research paper Data collection Techniques (Primary method and Secondary method) Analysis part of the investigations procedure Findings and research analysis Conclusion and Recommendation Final submission of the Research Paper Conclusion The present research paper is divided into several parts. The objective of the study is to distinguish between the national law and international law. There are several points, which are elaborated in the study and contribute a significant portion in the study. The selected country in the research paper is United Kingdom. The legal structure of the United Kingdom comprises the national legal structure and on the other hand, the European Union legal structure of the study comprises the international legal structure. All the characteristics of both the legal structure are highlighted in the study. The United Kingdom legal structure is the comprised of the legal structure of England, Wales and Scotland. Three different countries maintain three different kinds of legal structure. In England the application of English law is applied, in Wales, common law is applied and Civil law is applied in different parts of Scotland. All the important factors such as different kinds of legislation and different kind kinds of Acts are analyzed in the study in order to highlight the key relationship of both the national legal structure and international legal structure. National Law and international have some specific features. The concept of the national law comprises all the internal factors of the country, which are developed by matching the requirements of the country. The notions of the national law are restricted within a specific geographical region of the country, while the application of the international legal structure is not restricted with in a specific geographical boundary of the country. It is applicable globally. In order to develop a proper investigation process on the present research topic of law, the investigator applies different investigation procedure. Research approach, research designs and research philosophies are the key points, which the investigator in the present research paper applied in the research operations. Mostly importantly, keeping in mind the cost factor of the investigation procedure the researcher in the study applies the concept of the secondary data analysis in order to reduce the cost. Cost is one of th e most effect factors in the operations of the investigation procedure and on the other hand, the other hand the resources of the organizational are limited. By applying the secondary mode of data analysis, the researcher in the investigation procedure will reduce cost in different manner. The main reason for applying the secondary mode of the data analysis because the entire investigation procedure is done based on the published. Reference List Arnold R,The Universalism Of Human Rights(Springer 2013) Arrowsmith S and Treumer S,Competitive Dialogue In EU Procurement(Cambridge University Press 2012) Arrowsmith S,The Law Of Public And Utilities Procurement. Vol. 1(Sweet Maxwell 2014) Bakker R, Jolly S and Polk J, "Complexity In The European Party Space: Exploring Dimensionality With Experts" (2012) 13 European Union Politics Boas G,Public International Law(Edward elgar 2013) Carter B and Weiner A,International Law(Wolters Kluwer Law Business 2011) Chervenak F and McCullough L,The Professional Responsibility Model Of Perinatal Ethics(De Gruyter 2014) Cohen S, Schwartz M and Harris H,Ethics, Values And Civil Society(Emerald 2013) Corinne Jorgenson.,Proceedings Of The International Institute Of Space Law 2011(Eleven International Publishing 2012) Cotesta V and D'Auria M,Global Society And Human Rights(Brill 2012) Cuthbert M,European Union Law(Sweet Maxwell 2012) Database P,Blackstone's Police Operational Handbook 2014(Oxford University Press 2013) Davies K,Understanding European Union Law(Taylor and Francis 2012) De Wet E and Vidmar J,Hierarchy In International Law(Oxford University Press 2012) Edward D and Lane R,Edward And Lane On European Union Law(Edward Elgar 2012) Epps V and Graham L,International Law(Wolters Kluwer 2011) Ernst G and Heilinger J,The Philosophy Of Human Rights(De Gruyter 2012) Fairhurst J,Law Of The European Union(Pearson 2012) Friedman M,Human Rights(Heinemann Library 2012) Horspool M and Humphreys M,European Union Law(Oxford University Press 2012) Hunton P, "Managing The Technical Resource Capability Of Cybercrime Investigation: A UK Law Enforcement Perspective" (2012) 32 Public Money Management Jessup B and Rubenstein K,Environmental Discourses In Public And International Law(Cambridge University Press 2012) Kent P,European Union Law(Sweet Maxwell 2012) Lauritzen P,The Ethics Of Interrogation(Georgetown University Press 2013) Law R, Fuchs M and Ricci F,Information And Communication Technologies In Tourism 2011(Springer 2011) Law R, Fuchs M and Ricci F,Information And Communication Technologies In Tourism 2011(Springer 2011) Lemmings D,Crime, Courtrooms, And The Public Sphere In Britain, 1700-1850(Ashgate 2013) Love K,Ethics In Social Research(Emerald 2012) Mayer T and Steneck N,Promoting Research Integrity In A Global Environment(World Scientific 2012) Muller A, "Kate Parlett, The Individual In The International Legal System. Continuity And Change In International Law" (2012) 23 European Journal of International Law Odello M and Piotrowicz R,International Military Missions And International Law(Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 2011) Osborne J,Professional Ethics(Osborne 2012) Primeaux P, Schwartz M and Harris H,Applied Ethics(Emerald 2012) Proksch S and Lo J, "Reflections On The European Integration Dimension" (2012) 13 European Union Politics Przybojewski J, "Principle Of Decentralization Of Public Power In Poland" (2014) 1 Law and Administration in Post-Soviet Europe R U,Italian Yearbook Of Human Rights 2011(PIE-Peter Lang SA 2012) RudaityteÃÅ'†¡ R,Literature In Society(Cambridge Scholars Pub 2012) Saxby S and Hill C, "Public Sector Information And Open Data: Which Way Forward For The UK?" (2012) 2 International Journal of Public Law and Policy Su F and McGettrick B,Professional Ethics(Cambridge Scholars 2012) Tiersma P and Solan L,The Oxford Handbook Of Language And Law(Oxford University Press 2012) Vellani F,Understanding Disability Discrimination Law Through Geography(Ashgate Pub 2013) Warntjen A, "Measuring Salience In EU Legislative Politics" (2011) 13 European Union Politics Whish R and Bailey D,Competition Law(Oxford University Press 2012) Xiong P,An International Law Perspective On The Protection Of Human Rights In The TRIPS Agreement(BRILL 2012) Zuba D, SekuÅ‚a K and Buczek A, "Identification And Characterization Of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Nitro--Phenethylamine (2C-N) A New Member Of 2C-Series Of Designer Drug" (2012) 222 Forensic Science International [1] Rainer Arnold,The Universalism Of Human Rights(Springer 2013). [2] Sue Arrowsmith,The Law Of Public And Utilities Procurement. Vol. 1(Sweet Maxwell 2014). [3] Sue Arrowsmith and Steen Treumer,Competitive Dialogue In EU Procurement(Cambridge University Press 2012). [4] R. Bakker, S. Jolly and J. Polk, "Complexity In The European Party Space: Exploring Dimensionality With Experts" (2012) 13 European Union Politics. [5] Gideon Boas,Public International Law(Edward elgar 2013). [6] Barry E Carter and Allen S Weiner,International Law(Wolters Kluwer Law Business 2011). [7] Frank A Chervenak and Laurence B McCullough,The Professional Responsibility Model Of Perinatal Ethics(De Gruyter 2014). [8] Stephen Cohen, Michael Schwartz and Howard Harris,Ethics, Values And Civil Society(Emerald 2013). [9] Corinne Jorgenson.,Proceedings Of The International Institute Of Space Law 2011(Eleven International Publishing 2012). [10] Vittorio Cotesta and Matthew D'Auria,Global Society And Human Rights(Brill 2012). [11] Mike Cuthbert,European Union Law(Sweet Maxwell 2012). [12] Karen Davies,Understanding European Union Law(Taylor and Francis 2012). [13] Erika De Wet and Jure Vidmar,Hierarchy In International Law(Oxford University Press 2012). [14] Gerhard Ernst and Jan-Christoph Heilinger,The Philosophy Of Human Rights(De Gruyter 2012). [15] John Fairhurst,Law Of The European Union(Pearson 2012). [16] David A. O Edward and Robert C Lane,Edward And Lane On European Union Law(Edward Elgar 2012). [17] Paul Lauritzen,The Ethics Of Interrogation(Georgetown University Press 2013). [18] Brad Jessup and Kim Rubenstein,Environmental Discourses In Public And International Law(Cambridge University Press 2012). [19] Sue Arrowsmith and Steen Treumer,Competitive Dialogue In EU Procurement(Cambridge University Press 2012). [20] Gerhard Ernst and Jan-Christoph Heilinger,The Philosophy Of Human Rights(De Gruyter 2012). [21] John Fairhurst,Law Of The European Union(Pearson 2012). [22] Margot Horspool and Matthew Humphreys,European Union Law(Oxford University Press 2012). [23] Mark Friedman,Human Rights(Heinemann Library 2012). [24] Paul Hunton, "Managing The Technical Resource Capability Of Cybercrime Investigation: A UK Law Enforcement Perspective" (2012) 32 Public Money Management. [25] Brad Jessup and Kim Rubenstein,Environmental Discourses In Public And International Law(Cambridge University Press 2012). [26] Jacek Przybojewski, "Principle Of Decentralization Of Public Power In Poland" (2014) 1 Law and Administration in Post-Soviet Europe. [27] Peter Meijes Tiersma and Lawrence Solan,The Oxford Handbook Of Language And Law(Oxford University Press 2012). [28] Penelope Kent,European Union Law(Sweet Maxwell 2012). [29] Jacek Przybojewski, "Principle Of Decentralization Of Public Power In Poland" (2014) 1 Law and Administration in Post-Soviet Europe. [30] Richard Whish and David Bailey,Competition Law(Oxford University Press 2012). [31] Paul Lauritzen,The Ethics Of Interrogation(Georgetown University Press 2013). [32] A. Warntjen, "Measuring Salience In EU Legislative Politics" (2011) 13 European Union Politics. [33] S.-O. Proksch and J. Lo, "Reflections On The European Integration Dimension" (2012) 13 European Union Politics. [34] Rob Law, Matthias Fuchs and Francesco Ricci,Information And Communication Technologies In Tourism 2011(Springer 2011). [35] Regina RudaityteÃÅ'†¡,Literature In Society(Cambridge Scholars Pub 2012). [36] Patrick Primeaux, Michael Schwartz and Howard Harris,Applied Ethics(Emerald 2012). [37] Rob Law, Matthias Fuchs and Francesco Ricci,Information And Communication Technologies In Tourism 2011(Springer 2011). [38] Rob Law, Matthias Fuchs and Francesco Ricci,Information And Communication Technologies In Tourism 2011(Springer 2011). [39] Feng Su and Bart McGettrick,Professional Ethics(Cambridge Scholars 2012).

Sunday, April 5, 2020

Controls for Differentiated Strategies Essay Example

Controls for Differentiated Strategies Essay Controls for Differentiated Strategies Different strategies influence management control processes, internal and external factors like size, environment, technology, interdependence and strategies forge together to what researchers call as the contingency theory. These strategies and their influences in management control systems are tendencies, not hard and fast rules. Linking controls to strategies is based on various thinking: (1) Different organizations operate in different strategic context, (2) Different strategies require different tasks, success factors, perspective and behaviour, (3) Controls are systems that influence the people behind the activities being measured and (4) Behaviour induced by the system is consistent with the strategy. Corporate Strategies Corporate strategy is about being in the right mix of businesses. It addresses are the definition of businesses where they compete and the deployment of resources to these businesses. Three categories classify companies in their corporate strategies: (1) Single industry, a firm operating one line of business, (2) Related Diversified operates in several industries with common core competencies and (3) Unrelated Diversified operates various businesses without connection except financial. Different corporate strategies imply different control structures based on organizational structures. Single industries would be functionally organized, related diversified will be structured as business units while unrelated diversified would be structured as a holding company. We will write a custom essay sample on Controls for Differentiated Strategies specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Controls for Differentiated Strategies specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Controls for Differentiated Strategies specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Corporate management’s familiarity with range from high to low from single industry to unrelated diversified. Functional background of corporate management starts from relevant operating experience from single industry to mainly finance for unrelated diversified. Decision making authority as a single industry is more centralized to a more decentralized authority on unrelated diversified. Corporate staff size, Reliance on internal promotions and Use of lateral transfers are high on single industries to low on unrelated diversified. Corporate culture ranges from strong on single industries to weak on unrelated diversified companies. Implications on management control also flow in relation to single industry to unrelated diversified. Strategic planning-wise single industries perform vertical-cum-horizontal planning while unrelated diversified are generally vertical only. Control of budget manager on budget formulation and importance to meeting the budget is low on single industries to high on unrelated diversified companies. Importance of transfer pricing on the other hand is high among single industry businesses and low among unrelated diversified. Sourcing flexibility for single industries are constrained while unrelated diversified gets arm’s length market pricing. Bonus criteria on single industries are both financial and non-financial while on unrelatedly diversified companies its primarily financial. Bonus determination is also highly subjective for single industries while more formula based for unrelated diversified. The bonus basis is based on both business unit and corporate performance on single industries and gravitates toward business unit performance-based for unrelated diversified companies. Business Unit Strategies Business strategy is about how to compete. With two interrelated aspects: its mission (four types: build, hold, harvest and divest) and competitive advantage (two ways: cost leadership and differentiation). The missions also constitute a continuum, pure build on one end to pure harvest on the other. Congruence between mission chosen and types of control used leads to effective implementation. Different missions also require different management control systems. Mission and Uncertainty are also correlated, build units face greater uncertainty versus harvest due to several reasons: (1) Build are usually done at the growth stage while of the product life cycle while harvest happens at the maturity stage. (2) Build units are targeted to increase market share wherein it is highly cutthroat in terms of competition versus harvest. 3) Build is also more dependent on external input and outputs, the more external dependencies the higher risk since these are outside ones control and (4) build are often in new and evolving industries where managers have less experiences. Build to Harvest strategies also is a choice of Time-span, short-term versus long-term trade-offs. Build managers are tuned at future profits while harvest managers are more concentrated on maximizing short term gains. In t erms of control systems differing across missions: The Importance of strategic planning is relatively high on build and relatively low on harvest. Capital Expenditure Decisions are less formal on build while more formal on harvest. Capital Expenditure Evaluation criteria for build units are more emphasized on non-financial data while Harvests have more emphasis on financial. Discount rates are low on build while high on harvest’s but conversely for project approval limits at the business unit level its high for build and low for harvest. Capital investment analysis is more subjective and qualitative on build and it moves up becoming more objective and quantitative for harvest businesses. Implications of different strategic missions on budget are as follows: the role of budget on build is more of a short-term planning tool while for harvest it is a control tool. Business manager;s influence on budget preparation and control limit used on evaluation against budget are high on build and low on harvest. Budget revisions are easy for build while more difficult for harvest. Informal reporting is more frequent on policy issues and less on operating issues for build and while it is the opposite when you go towards harvest. Feedback on performance versus budget is less often on build but more often for harvest. Importance to meeting the budget is also low for build but high for harvest. Behaviour control is also more emphasized in build while output control is more prevalent on harvest businesses. Strategic missions implications on incentive compensation are as follows: percent compensation as bonus is high on build and low for harvest. Bonus criteria for build is on non-financial while its more financial on harvest. Bonus is determined more subjectively for build and more formula based for harvest. The frequency for bonus payments for build is less compared to harvest where it is more frequent. Competitive Advantage can be achieved thru differentiation or low cost approaches. Differentiation is considered to be more uncertain than low cost for the following reasons: (1) Product Innovation is very critical in differentiation, it increases uncertainty due to its emphasis in producing new and unproven products. (2) Low cost have narrow lines and minimizes inventory versus broader line of differentiation to create uniqueness – the more the products, the more complex the higher the uncertainty. And (3) low cost produce simple products that are priced lower than competing products, while differentiated products are complex with more myopic approach to consumers perception that are more difficult to predict thus making it more uncertain. Top Management Style Management control is heavily influenced by the management and managers manage differently. Each manager’s management style is influenced by his background like age, education, experience and his personality such as risk appetite and tolerance for ambiguity. Management style significantly influences the operation of control systems. The executive’s preference for use of information and performance review meetings, personal and impersonal controls is also a variable of managerial style. The importance of formal budgets and reports versus informal conversations are highly dependent on the type of leadership. Some are more quantitative while others are more qualitative. The attitude of managers towards reports affect the amount of detail that they want, frequency, graphs versus tables or words, thus its best that designers of management control systems also identify these preferences and accommodate them. A manager’s style also influences the degree of tightness or looseness of controls. This degree is also correlated to style of the manager’s superior. The degree of looseness also increases at higher levels of hierarchy but might not also be generalized dependent on the style of the CEO. The style of the CEO has a great impact on management control, and as each senior manager changes so does the system change accordingly.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Example Essay

Example Essay Example Essay Example Essay Example of essay serves several functions. First, example essay gives you idea for your own essay writing. Second, example is your guide to essay formatting. At the same time, you should not forget that example essay is also your risk because all example essays are easily accessible by any person at any time. Thus, think twice before using free example essay. If you do not want to risk, try our custom essay help . Our writers will write your essay from scratch and meet your specific academic writing requirements. We guarantee confidentiality and full adherence to requirements. Example Essay Excerpt Purifying water with any kind of fuel is not going to be inexpensive. During planning for the big Feather River Project, Californians investigated doing the job with sea-water conversion plants. The Feather River conduits will deliver 1.3 billion gallons per day to Southern California. Preliminary plans indicated that it might be possible to build giant distillation plants producing more than 100 million gallons a day the OSW's biggest to date has produced only 1.4 million gallons a day, remember. There was one big flaw in the plan, however. Each of these big installations would have required 6.5 percent of Southern California's entire natural-gas output, and it would take ten of them to do the job. Desalting sea water would require two-thirds of all the natural-gas power in the area. Understandably, work was pushed on the Feather River Project. At present our government believes it can desalinate sea water at a cost of $1.25 per 1000 gallons. For a thirsty man, this seems dirt chea p, but to that figure must be added other expenses, including costs of transporting sea water to the plant and fresh water into homes. These transportation charges are well fixed; the problem is to reduce the expense of conversion. Some authorities feel that artificially produced fresh water is so costly of fuel that it will never be widely used for agriculture, which accounts for most of the world's water consumption, or for industry. Obviously human beings won't starve before they sacrifice wealth for food, but present use of desalinated sea water for farming is limited to the island of Guernsey in the English Channel. When droughts occur, the island's tomato crop suffers, and since this is the big business on that island the farmers have installed a 600,000-gallons-per-day standby distillation plant as insurance against the times when it doesn't rain. An example of industrial sea-water use in the United States is the steam-electric power generating plant of the Southern Californi a Edison Company at Mandalay Beach, California, where a distillation plant desalts ocean water at the rate of 100,000 gallons a day for the power plant. In addition to combination electric-power-desalting plants, there is another approach that may help lower the cost of desalination. The ocean is about 3 1/2 percent mineral, and we need minerals, too. Of 77 important minerals, for example, the United States has an ample domestic supply of only 11. How about mining the sea for these needed materials? Custom Essay Writing The above example essay is good, but it is not custom written. If you want to get an essay written especially for you from scratch, try our professional essay writing services. We can handle all essay topics!

Friday, February 21, 2020

Question Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 13

Question - Essay Example Yes water affects mass wasting processes. Water reduces adhesive forces been the soil among other debris materials thereby facilitating mass wasting. Additionally, water often has force large enough to move material including large debris down the stream. The downward movement of loose and unconsolidated materials including soil and sediment is often due to force of gravity. At the point where the soil among other consolidated materials is not moving down the hill, such material are held in place with frictional force. The point at which the gravitational and frictional force balances is referred to angle of repose. This is the maximum angle that a friction force can hold loose material on the surface of the earth not to move downhill. Therefore, angles greater than angle of repose usually lead to mass wasting and at this point the force of gravity is slightly greater than frictional force holding the same materials. Soil creeping is a long term mass wasting process and it combine the movement of small and rocky materials in undirected direction. The movement of such materials are often facilitated by force of gravity. The creep usually do much damage since it leads to collection of materials over time especially behind trees; thus, it may lead to landslides triggered mainly by these tree particularly in cases that they lose root